| Chinese Version          

Order of the President of the People’s Republic of China

No. 42

The Companies Law of the People’s Republic of China has been revised and adopted at the 18th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on October 27, 2005, and its revised version is hereby promulgated and shall go into effect as of January 1, 2006.

Hu Jintao

President of the People’s Republic of China

October 27, 2005

Companies Law of the People’s Republic of China

(Adopted at the 5th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Eighth National People’s Congress on December 29, 1993; amended for the first time in accordance with the Decision on Revision of the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China made at the 13th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Ninth National People’s Congress on December 25, 1999; amended for the second time in accordance with the Decision on Revision of the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China made at the 11th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People’s Congress on August 28, 2004; and revised at the 18th Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People’s Congress on October 27, 2005)

Contents

Chapter I General Provisions

Chapter II Incorporation and Organizational Structure of a Company with Limited Liability

Section 1 Incorporation

Section 2 Organizational Structure

Section 3 Special Provisions on One-person Companies with Limited Liability

Section 4 Special Provisions on Wholly Stated-owned Companies

Chapter III Equity Transfer of Companies with Limited Liability

Chapter IV Incorporation and Organizational Structure of a Company Limited by Shares

Section 1 Incorporation

Section 2 Shareholders General Assembly

Section 3 Board of Directors, and the Manager

Section 4 Board of Supervisors

Section 5 Special Provisions on Organizational Structure of Listed Companies

Chapter V Issue and Transfer of Shares of Companies Limited by Shares

Section 1 Issue of Shares

Section 2 Transfer of Shares

Chapter VI Qualifications and Obligations of Directors, Supervisors and Senior Managers of Companies

Chapter VII Corporate Bonds

Chapter VIII Financial Affairs and Accounting of Companies

Chapter IX Merger and Division of Companies, Increase and Reduction of Capital

Chapter X Dissolution and Liquidation of Companies

Chapter XI Branches of Foreign Companies

Chapter XII Legal Responsibility

Chapter XIII Supplementary Provisions

Chapter I General Provisions

Article 1 This Law is enacted in order to standardize the organization and behavior of companies, to protect the legitimate rights and interests of companies, shareholders and creditors, to maintain the socio-economic order and to promote the development of the socialist market economy.

Article 2 For the purposes of this Law, the term company refers to a company with limited liability or a company limited by shares incorporated within the territory of the People’s Republic of China in accordance with this Law.

Article 3 A company is an enterprise legal person, which has independent property of a legal person and enjoys the property rights of a legal person. The company shall be liable for its debts to the extent of its entire property.

Shareholders of a company with limited liability shall assume liability towards the company to the extent of the capital contributions subscribed respectively by them; and the shareholders of a company limited by shares shall assume liability towards the company to the extent of the shares subscribed respectively by them.

Article 4 The shareholders of a company shall, in accordance with law, enjoy such rights as benefiting from the assets of the company, participation in making major decisions and selection of managerial personnel.

Article 5 In its operational activities, a company shall abide by laws and administrative regulations, observe social morals and commercial ethics, persist in honesty and good faith, accept supervision by the government and the public, and assume social responsibility.

The legitimate rights and interests of companies shall be protected by law, and shall be inviolable.

Article 6 Where an entity intends to incorporate a company, it shall, in accordance with law, apply to a company registration authority for registration of such incorporation. Where the conditions for incorporation provided for by this Law are met, the company registration authority shall have the company registered as a company with limited liability or a company limited by shares; and where the said conditions are not met, the company shall not be registered as one with limited liability or as one limited by shares.

Where laws or administrative regulations provide that approval is required for incorporation of a company, the procedures of approval shall be completed according to law prior to registration of the company.

The public may apply to the company registration authority for inquiry about the items registered by a company, and the authority shall provide services for such inquiry.

Article 7 The company registration authority shall issue a business license to a company incorporated according to law. The date on which the business license is issued shall be the date on which a company is incorporated.

In the business license of a company shall clearly be stated such items as the name, domicile, registered capital, actually received capital, scope of business and name of the legal representative of the company.

Where the items stated in the business license of a company are altered, the company shall have the alterations registered according to law, and the company registration authority shall renew its business license.

Article 8 A company with limited liability incorporated according to this Law shall have the words “company with limited liability” or “limited company” indicated in its name.

A company limited by shares incorporated according to this Law shall have the words “company limited by shares” or “company by shares” indicated in its name.

Article 9 Where a company with limited liability is to be changed into a company limited by shares, it shall meet the conditions of a company limited by shares provided for by this Law. Where a company limited by shares is to be changed into a company with limited liability, it shall meet the conditions of a company with limited liability provided for by this Law.

Where a company with limited liability is changed into a company limited by shares, or a company limited by shares is changed into a company with limited liability, the rights of credit and the debts of the company prior to the change shall be inherited by the company after the change.

Article 10 The domicile of a company shall be the place where its main administrative organization is located.

Article 11 Articles of association shall be formulated according to law when a company is incorporated. The articles of association of a company shall have binding force on the company, its shareholders, directors, supervisors and senior managers.

Article 12 The business scope of a company shall be defined in the company’s articles of association, and shall be registered according to law. A company may revise its articles of association and alter its scope of business, but shall have such revision and alteration registered.

The items within the scope of business of a company that are subject to approval as provided for by laws and administrative regulations shall be submitted for approval according to law.

Article 13 The chairman of the board of directors, the executive director or the manager shall, in accordance with the provisions of a company’s articles of association, serve as the legal representative of the company, which shall be registered according to law. Where the legal representative of a company is replaced, the company shall have such replacement registered.

Article 14 A company may establish branches. Where a company intends to establish a branch, it shall apply for registration to the company registration authority, in order to obtain a business license for the branch. However, such a branch shall not possess the status of a legal person, and its civil liabilities shall be borne by the company.

A company may establish subsidiaries, which shall possess the status of legal persons, and shall independently bear civil liabilities according to law.

Article 15 A company may invest in other enterprises; however, it shall not become the investor that assumes joint and several liability for the debts of the enterprises in which it invests, except where otherwise provided for by law.

Article 16 Where a company intends to invest in another enterprise or provide guarantee for another entity, the matter shall, in accordance with the provisions of the company’s articles of association, be subject to a resolution adopted by the board of directors or the shareholders assembly or the shareholders general assembly; and where norms for the gross amount of investments or guarantees and for the amount of a single investment or guarantee are specified in the company’s articles of association, such norms shall not be exceeded.

Where a company intends to provide a guarantee for its shareholder or its actual controller, the matter shall be subject to a resolution adopted by its shareholders assembly or shareholders general assembly.

The shareholder specified in the preceding paragraph or the shareholder dominated by the actual controller specified in the preceding paragraph shall not participate in the vote on the matter specified in the preceding paragraph. The resolution on such matter shall be adopted if it is voted for by other shareholders present at the meeting who hold more than half of the voting rights.

Article 17 Companies shall protect the lawful rights and interests of their staff and workers, sign labor contracts with them according to law, participate in social insurance, and improve occupational protection so as to achieve safety in production.

Companies shall, in various forms, improve vocational education and on-the-job training among their staff and workers so as to enhance their quality.

Article 18 The staff and workers of a company shall, in accordance with the Trade Union Law of the People’s Republic of China, organize a trade union to carry out trade union activities and protect the lawful rights and interests of the staff and workers. The company shall provide the trade union of the company with the conditions necessary for carrying out its activities. The trade union of a company shall represent the staff and workers to sign with the company collective contracts on such items as the payment for work done, working hours, welfare and insurance benefits as well as occupational safety and health of the staff and workers according to law.

Companies shall, through the conference of the representatives of the staff and workers or other forms, carry out democratic management in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution and relevant laws.

When a company discusses to make decisions on structural reform or on major issues in business operation, or formulate important rules and regulations, it shall listen to the opinions of the trade union, and shall listen to the opinions and proposals of the staff and workers through the conference of the representatives of staff and workers or other forms.

Article 19 In companies, Communist Party organizations shall, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Communist Party of China, be set up to carry out activities of the Party. Companies shall provide the necessary conditions for the Party organizations to carry out their activities.

Article 20 The shareholder of a company shall observe laws, administrative regulations and the company’s articles of association, exercise the rights of a shareholder according to law, and shall not abuse his rights to damage the interests of the company or other shareholders; and he shall not abuse the independent status of the company as a legal person or the limited liability of shareholders to damage the interests of the creditors of the company.

Where the shareholder of a company abuses the rights of shareholders and thus causes losses to the company or other shareholders, he shall be liable for compensation according to law.

Where the shareholder of a company abuses the independent status of the company as a legal person or the limited liability of shareholders, evades debts and thus seriously damages the interests of the creditors of the company, he shall assume joint and several liability for the debts of the company.

Article 21 Proprietary shareholders, the actual controllers, directors, supervisors and senior managers of a company shall not take advantage of their affiliated relations to damage the interests of the company.

A person who, in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, causes losses to a company shall be liable for compensation.

Article 22 The resolution adopted by the shareholders assembly or the shareholders general assembly or the board of directors of a company, which in content violates laws or administrative regulations, shall be invalid.

Where the procedures for convening the meeting of the shareholders assembly or the shareholders general assembly, or the board of directors, or the voting formulas are against laws, administrative regulations or the articles of association of a company, or the content of the resolution adopted is against the company’s articles of association, the shareholders may, within 60 days from the date the resolution is adopted, request the people’s court to rescind the resolution.

Where shareholders take legal proceedings in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the people’s court may, upon request of the company, demand the shareholders to provide appropriate guarantee.

Where a company has registered for alteration in accordance with the resolution adopted by the shareholders assembly, the shareholders general assembly or the board of directors, and the people’s court declares the resolution invalid or rescinds it, the company shall apply for cancellation of the registration for such alteration.

Chapter II Incorporation and Organizational Structure of a Company with Limited Liability

Section 1 Incorporation

Article 23 The following conditions shall be met for the incorporation of a company with limited liability:

(1) The number of shareholders conforms to the statutory number;

(2) The capital contributions of the shareholders reach the statutory minimum amount of capital;

(3) The shareholders have jointly formulated the articles of association;

(4) The company has its name and has established an organizational structure in conformity with the requirements for a company with limited liability; and

(5) The company has its own domicile.

Article 24 A company with limited liability shall be jointly invested in and incorporated by not more than 50 shareholders.

Article 25 The articles of association of a company with limited liability shall specify the following items:

(1) the name and domicile of the company;

(2) the scope of business of the company;

(3) the registered capital of the company;

(4) the names or titles of the shareholders;

(5) the forms of capital contributions, the amounts and dates of capital contributions made by shareholders;

(6) the bodies of the company, and the measures for their establishment, their functions and powers, as well as the rules of procedure;

(7) the legal representative of the company; and

(8) other items which the shareholders assembly deems necessary to be specified.

The shareholders shall sign their names on and affix their seals to the company’s articles of association.

Article 26 The registered capital of a company with limited liability shall be the amount of capital contributions subscribed for by all of its shareholders, as is registered with the company registration authority. The amount of the initial capital contributions made by all of the shareholders of the company shall be not less than 20 percent of the company’s registered capital, or not less than the statutory minimum amount of the registered capital either, and the remainder shall be paid for in full by the shareholders within two years from the date the company is established; and in the case of an investment company, it may pay for the remainder in full within five years.

The minimum amount of the registered capital of a company with limited liability shall be RMB 30,000 yuan. Where a greater amount is provided for by laws or administrative regulations, such provision shall prevail.

Article 27 A shareholder may make his capital contributions in currency or do so by contributing such non-curreny property as material objects, intellectual property rights and land-use rights that can be evaluated in currency and can be transferred according to law, except for the property that is not allowed to be used as capital contributions, as is provided for by laws or administrative regulations.

Non-curreny property used for capital contributions shall be evaluated and verified, and shall not be overvalued or undervalued. Where laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise, those provisions shall prevail.

The amount of capital contributions made by all of the shareholders in currency shall not be less than 30 percent of the registered capital of a company with limited liability.

Article 28 A shareholder shall pay, on schedule and in full, the amount of the capital contributions subscribed for in accordance with the provisions of the articles of association of a company. Where a shareholder makes capital contributions in currency, he shall deposit the full amount of such capital contributions in currency in the bank account opened by the company with limited liability; and where a shareholder makes capital contributions with non-corrency property, he shall, according to law, go through the formalities for the transfer of his property rights.

Where a shareholder fails to make capital contributions in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, in addition to paying to the company of his portion of the capital contributions in full, he shall be liable for breach of contract towards the shareholders who have, on schedule and in full, made their capital contributions.

Article 29 After the shareholders have made their capital contributions, such capital contributions shall be subject to capital verification by a capital verification authority set up according to law, which shall issue capital verification certificates.

Article 30 After the initial capital contributions made by shareholders have been verified by a capital verification authority set up according to law, a representative designated by all the shareholders or a proxy jointly entrusted by them shall submit to the company registration authority such documents as a written application for registration of the company, the company’s articles of association and the capital verification certificates, in order to apply for registration of the incorporation of the company.

Article 31 Where after the incorporation of a company with limited liability, it is discovered that the actual amount of the value of the non-currency property used as capital contributions for the incorporation of the company is obviously less than the amount of the value prescribed in the company’s articles of association, the shareholders that made such contributions shall make up the difference; and the others who are shareholders at the time of the incorporation of the company shall bear joint and several liability therefor.

Article 32 After a company with limited liability is incorporated, it shall issue investment certificates to its shareholders.

In an investment certificate the following items shall be specified:

(1) the name of the company;

(2) the date on which the company is incorporated;

(3) the registered capital of the company;

(4) the name or title of the shareholder, the amount and date of capital contributions; and

(5) the serial number of the investment certificate and the date of its verification and issue.

An investment certificate shall bear the seal of the company.

Article 33 A company with limited liability shall prepare a roster of its shareholders in which the following items shall be recorded:

(1) the names or titles and domiciles of the shareholders;

(2) the amounts of the capital contributions made by the shareholders; and

(3) the serial numbers of their investment certificates.

The shareholders recorded in the roster of the shareholders may claim to exercise their rights in such capacity on the basis of the said roster.

The company shall register with a company registration authority the names or titles of its shareholders and the amount of their capital contributions; and where items of registration are altered, it shall have the registration altered accordingly. Without registration or without registration for alteration, the company shall not act against the third party.

Article 34 A shareholder shall have the right to consult and duplicate the company’s articles of association, the minutes of the meeting of the shareholders assembly, the resolutions of the board of directors, the resolutions of the board of supervisors, and the financial and accounting reports of the company.

A shareholder may request to consult the accounting books of the company. To do that, the shareholder shall submit a written request to the company and explain his purposes. Where the company deems, on reasonable grounds, that it is for illegitimate purposes that the shareholder requests to consult its accounting books, which may damage the lawful interests of the company, the company may refuse to provide its accounting books for the shareholder to consult, and shall, within 15 days from the date the shareholder submits the written request, give a written reply to the shareholder and state its reasons. Where the company refuses to provide its accounting books, the shareholder may request the people’s court to demand the company to provide such books.

Article 35 Shareholders shall draw dividends in proportion to the capital contributions they made; and when a company increases its capital, its shareholders shall have the right of first refusal to make their subscriptions in proportion to the capital contributions they made, except where all the shareholders have agreed to draw the dividends not in proportion to their capital contributions or to do without the right of first refusal in proportion to their capital contributions when making subscriptions.

Article 36 Once a company is incorporated, its shareholders shall not secretly withdraw their capital contributions.

Section 2 Organizational Structure

Article 37 The shareholders assembly of a company with limited liability shall be composed of all of its shareholders. The shareholders assembly is the organ of power of the company and shall exercise its functions and powers in accordance with this Law.

Article 38 The shareholders assembly shall exercise the following functions and powers:

(1) to decide on the operational policy and investment plan of the company;

(2) to elect or replace directors and supervisors who are not representatives of the staff and workers, and to decide on matters concerning the remuneration of the directors and supervisors;

(3) to examine and approve reports of the board of directors;

(4) to examine and approve reports of the board of supervisors or the supervisors;

(5) to examine and approve the annual financial budget plan and final accounts plan of the company;

(6) to examine and approve the company’s plans for profit distribution and for making up losses;

(7) to adopt resolutions on the increase or reduction of the registered capital of the company;

(8) to adopt resolutions on the issue of corporate bonds;

(9) to adopt resolutions on the merger, division, dissolution, liquidation or transformation of the company;

(10) to amend the articles of association of the company; and

(11) other functions and powers provided for in the company’s articles of association.

Where the shareholders express, in writing, their unanimous agreement on the matters specified in the preceding paragraph, they may directly make a decision without convening a meeting of the shareholders assembly, and all the shareholders shall sign their names on and affix their seals to the documents of the decision.

Article 39 The first meeting of the shareholders assembly of a company shall be convened and presided over by the shareholder who has made the greatest capital contributions to the company, and he shall exercise the functions and powers in accordance with the provisions of this Law.

Article 40 The meetings of the shareholders assembly shall be divided into regular meetings and interim meetings.

Regular meetings shall be convened on schedule as specified by the provisions of the company’s articles of association. An interim meeting shall be convened when it is proposed by shareholders representing one-tenth or more of the voting rights, by one-third or more of the directors, by the board of supervisors, or by the supervisors of a company without a board of supervisors.

Article 41 Where a board of directors is set up in a company with limited liability, the meeting of the shareholders assembly shall be convened by the board of directors and presided over by the chairman of the board of directors; where the chairman of the board cannot perform such function or fails to do so, the meeting shall be presided over by the vice-chairman of the board; and where the vice-chairman cannot perform the function or fails to do so, the meeting shall be presided over by a director jointly elected by half and more of the directors.

Where no board of directors is set up in a company with limited liability, the meeting of the shareholders assembly shall be convened and presided over by the executive director.

Where a board of directors or the executive director cannot perform or fails to perform the duty of convening a meeting the shareholders assembly, such a meeting shall be convened and presided over by a board of supervisors or the supervisor of a company where no board of supervisors is set up; and where the board of supervisors or the supervisor fails to convene and preside over the meeting, the shareholder representing one-tenth or more of the voting rights may convene and preside over such a meeting on his own.

Article 42 All the shareholders shall be notified 15 days prior to the convening of a meeting of the shareholders assembly, except where otherwise provided for by the company’s articles of association or agreed upon by all of the shareholders.

The shareholders assembly shall keep minutes of the decisions that are made on the matters discussed at the meeting, and the shareholders present at the meeting shall sign the minutes.

Article 43 Shareholders shall exercise their voting rights at a meeting of the shareholders assembly in proportion to their respective capital contributions, except where otherwise provided for by the company’s articles of association.

Article 44 The modes of meeting and voting procedures of the shareholders assembly shall, in addition to what is provided for in this Law, be stipulated by the company’s articles of association.

Resolutions made at a meeting of the shareholders assembly on amendment to the company’s articles of association, the increase or reduction of the registered capital, or on the merger, division, dissolution or transformation of the company shall be subject to adoption by the shareholders representing two-thirds or more of the voting rights.

Article 45 A company with limited liability shall set up a board of directors, which shall be composed of 3 to 13 members, except where otherwise provided for by Article 51 of this Law.

The members of the board of directors of a company with limited liability that is incorporated with the investment of two or more State-owned enterprises or two or more State-owned investment entities shall include representatives of the staff and workers of the company; and the members of the board of directors of other companies with limited liability may include representatives of the staff and workers of the companies. The representatives of the staff and workers on the board of directors shall be democratically elected by the staff and workers of the company through the conference of the representatives of the staff and workers, the general meeting of the staff and workers, or through other forms.

A board of directors shall have a chairman and may have a vice-chairman. The measures for the election of the chairman and vice-chairman of the board shall be stipulated by the company’s articles of association.

Article 46 The term of office of a director shall be stipulated by the company’s articles of association, but each term of office shall not exceed three years. A director may, if reelected upon expiration of his term of office, serve consecutive terms.

Where no election is conducted in time before the expiration of the term of office of a director, or the number of the directors is less than the statutory number due to the resignation of a director within his term of office, the existing director shall, before the director-elect takes office, continue to perform his duty as a director in accordance with the provisions of laws, administrative regulations or the company’s articles of association.

Article 47 The board of directors shall be accountable to the shareholders assembly and exercise the following functions and powers:

(1) to convene the meeting of the shareholders assembly, and to report on its work to the board;

(2) to implement the resolutions adopted by the shareholders assembly;

(3) to decide on the operational plans and investment plans of the company;

(4) to draw up the annual financial budget plan and final accounts plan of the company;

(5) to draw up plans for profit distribution and plans for making up losses of the company;

(6) to draw up plans for the increase or reduction of the registered capital and the issue of corporate bonds of the company;

(7) to draw up plans for the merger, division, dissolution and transformation of the company;

(8) to decide on the establishment of the internal administrative bodies of the company;

(9) to decide on the appointment or dismissal of the manager of the company and the matters concerning his remuneration, and upon recommendation of the manager, decide on the appointment or dismissal of the deputy manager(s) and persons in charge of the financial affairs of the company, and on the matters concerning their remuneration;

(10) to formulate the basic management system of the company; and

(11) to exercise other functions and powers stipulated by the company’s articles of association.

Article 48 The meeting of a board of directors shall be convened and presided over by the chairman of the board; where the chairman of the board cannot perform such functions or fails to do so, the meeting shall be convened and presided over by the vice-chairman of the board; and where the vice-chairman cannot perform such functions or fails to do so, the meeting shall be convened and presided over by a director jointly elected by half and more of the directors.

Article 49 The modes of meeting and voting procedures of a board of directors shall, in addition to the provisions of this Law, be stipulated by a company’s articles of association.

The board of directors shall keep minutes of the decisions that are made on the matters discussed at the meeting, and the directors present at the meeting shall sign the minutes.

The one-person one-vote system shall be practiced for voting on resolutions of the board of directors.

Article 50 A company with limited liability may have a manager, who shall be engaged or dismissed by decision of the board of directors. The manager shall be accountable to the board of directors and shall exercise the following functions and powers:

(1) to take charge of production, operation and management of the company and organize implementation of the resolutions of the board of directors;

(2) to organize implementation of the annual operational plan and the investment plan of the company;

(3) to draw up plans for establishment of the internal administrative bodies of the company;

(4) to draw up the basic management system of the company;

(5) to formulate the specific rules of the company;

(6) to recommend the engagement or dismissal of the deputy manager(s) and of the persons in charge of financial affairs of the company;

(7) to decide on the engagement or dismissal of the persons in charge of management other than the ones the engagement or dismissal of whom is to be decided by the board of directors; and

(8) to exercise other functions and powers granted by the board of directors.

Where the articles of association of a company provide otherwise for the functions and powers of the manager, the provisions there shall prevail.

The manager shall attend meetings of the board of directors as a non-voting attendant.

Article 51 Where a company with limited liability has a relatively small number of shareholders and is relatively small in scale, it may have an executive director instead of a board of directors. The executive director may concurrently serve as the manager of the company.

The functions and powers of an executive director shall be stipulated by the company’s articles of association.

Article 52 A company with limited liability shall have a board of supervisors, which shall be composed of not less than three members. Where a company with limited liability has a relatively small number of shareholders and is relatively small in scale, it may have one or two supervisors instead of a board of supervisors.

A board of supervisors shall be composed of representatives of the shareholders and an appropriate proportion of representatives of the staff and workers of the company, namely, not less than one-third of the number of the board of supervisors. The specific proportion shall be stipulated by the company’s articles of association. The representatives of the staff and workers on the board of supervisors shall be democratically elected by the staff and workers of the company through the conference of the representatives of the staff and workers, or the general meeting of the staff and workers, or through other forms.

The board of supervisors shall have one chairman, who shall be elected by more than half of all the supervisors. The chairman of the board of supervisors shall convene and preside over the meeting of the board of supervisors; and where the chairman of the board of supervisors cannot perform such functions or fails to do so, a supervisor jointly elected by more than half of the supervisors shall convene and preside over the meeting of the board of supervisors.

Directors and senior managers shall not concurrently serve as supervisors.

Article 53 The term of office of a supervisor shall be three years. A supervisor may, if reelected upon expiration of the term of office, serve consecutive terms.

Where no election is conducted in time before the expiration of the term of office of a supervisor, or the number of the supervisors is less than the statutory number due to the resignation of a supervisor within his term of office, the existing supervisor shall, before the supervisor-elect takes office, continue to perform his duty as a supervisor in accordance with the provisions of laws, administrative regulations or the company’s articles of association.

Article 54 The board of supervisors and the supervisor of a company without a board of supervisors shall exercise the following functions and powers:

(1) to examine the financial affairs of the company;

(2) to supervise the acts of the directors and senior managers in respect of the performance of their duties assigned by the company, and put forward proposals for removal of the directors or senior managers who violate laws, administrative regulations or the company’s articles of association, or the resolutions adopted by the shareholders assembly;

(3) to demand directors or senior managers to rectify when their acts damage the interests of the company;

(4) to propose convening an interim meeting of the shareholders assembly and to convene and preside over the meeting when the board of directors fails to perform the duty of convening and presiding over such meeting as provided for by this Law;

(5) to put forth motions at the meeting of the shareholders assembly;

(6) to take legal proceedings against directors or senior managers in accordance with the provisions of Article 152 of this Law; and

(7) to exercise other functions and powers stipulated by the company’s articles of association.

Article 55 A supervisor may attend meetings of the board of directors as a non-voting participant, and may inquire about or put forth proposals on matters on which resolutions have been or are to be adopted by the board of directors.

When the board of supervisors or the supervisor of a company without a board of supervisors discovers something unusual in the operation of the company, it/he may conduct investigation into the operating situation; and when necessary, it/he may engage an accounting firm or other such services to assist in the work, and the expenses entailed shall be paid by the company.

Article 56 A board of supervisors shall convene at least one meeting in each year. Supervisors may propose convening an interim meeting of the board of supervisors.

The mode of the meeting shall, in addition to the provisions of this Law, be stipulated by the company’s articles of association.

Resolutions of the board of supervisors shall be subject to adoption by half and more of the supervisors.

The board of supervisors shall keep minutes of the decisions made on matters discussed at a meeting, and the supervisors present at the meeting shall sign the minutes.

Article 57 The expenses needed to exercise the functions and powers by the board of supervisors or the supervisor of a company without such a board shall be paid by the company.

Section 3 Special Provisions on One-person Companies with Limited Liability

Article 58 The provisions of this Section are applicable to the incorporation and the organizational structure of a one-person company with limited liability; and where no provisions are stipulated in this Section on such company, the provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Chapter shall be applicable.

For the purposes of this Law, the one-person company with limited liability means a company with limited liability where there is only one shareholder who is a natural person or a legal person.

Article 59 The minimum amount of the registered capital for a one-person company with limited liability is 100,000 yuan. The shareholder shall make the capital contributions in one lump sum as stipulated by the articles of association of the company.

A natural person may only make investment for the incorporation of one one-person company with limited liability. Such a company may not make investment for the incorporation of a new one-person company with limited liability.

Article 60 A one-person company with limited liability shall clearly indicate whether it is of the sole investment of a natural person or of a legal person in its registration, and shall have it stated clearly as such in its business license.

Article 61 The articles of association of a one-person company with limited liability shall be formulated by the shareholder.

Article 62 No shareholders assembly shall be set up in a one-person company with limited liability. When the shareholder makes a decision on the matters specified in the first paragraph of Article 38 of this Law, he shall do so in written form and sign it before keeping it for the record in the company.

Article 63 A one-person company with limited liability shall, at the end of each fiscal year, draw up its financial and accounting report and have it audited by an accounting firm.

Article 64 Where the shareholder of a one-person company with limited liability cannot prove that the property of the company is independent of his own property, he shall assume the joint and several liability for the debts of the company.

Section 4 Special Provisions on Wholly Stated-owned Companies

Article 65 The provisions of this Section shall be applicable to the incorporation and the organizational structure of wholly Stated-owned companies; and where no provisions are stipulated on such company in this Section, the provisions of Sections 1 and 2 of this Chapter shall be applicable.

For the purposes of this law, a wholly Stated-owned companies is one with limited liability which is solely invested in by the State and for which the State Council or the local people’s government authorizes the State-owned assets regulatory institution under the people’s government at the corresponding level to perform the duties of an investor.

Article 66 The articles of association of a wholly Stated-owned company shall be formulated by the State-owned assets regulatory institution, or shall be formulated by its board of directors and submitted to the said institution for approval.

Article 67 No shareholders assembly shall be set up in a wholly Stated-owned company, and the functions and powers of such board shall be exercised by the State-owned assets regulatory institution. The said institution may authorize the company’s board of directors to exercise part of the functions and powers of the shareholders assembly and to make decisions on important matters of the company; however, matters on the merger, division and dissolution of the company, on the increase and reduction of the registered capital and the issue of corporate bonds shall be subject to decision by the State-owned assets regulatory institution; and among such matters, the merger, division, dissolution and application for bankruptcy of important wholly Stated-owned companies shall, after examination and verification by the said institution, be submitted to the people’s government at the corresponding level for approval.

The important wholly Stated-owned companies mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall be defined in accordance with the regulations of the State Council.

Article 68 A wholly Stated-owned company shall have a board of directors, which shall exercise its functions and powers in accordance with the provisions of Articles 47 and 67 of this Law. The term of office of a director shall not exceed three years. On the board of directors, there shall be representatives of the staff and workers of the company.

The members of the board of directors shall be appointed by the State-owned assets regulatory institution; but the representatives of the staff and workers among such members shall be elected by the conference of the representatives of the staff and workers of the company.

The board of directors shall have one chairman and may have a vice-chairman. The chairman and vice-chairman shall be designated by the State-owned assets regulatory institution from among the members of the board of directors.

Article 69 A wholly Stated-owned company shall have a manager, who shall be engaged or dismissed by the board of directors. The manager shall exercise his functions and powers in accordance with the provisions of Article 50 of this Law.

Upon consent of the State-owned assets regulatory institution, a member of the board of directors may concurrently serve as manager.

Article 70 Without the consent of the State-owned assets regulatory institution, the chairman or vice-chairman of the board of directors or the director or senior manager of a wholly Stated-owned company shall not hold a post concurrently in another company with limited liability, company limited by shares or economic organization.

Article 71 There shall be not less than five persons on the board of supervisors of a wholly State-owned company, and among them, the proportion of the representatives of the staff and workers shall not be less than one-third. The specific proportion shall be stipulated by the company’s articles of association.

The members of a board of supervisors shall be appointed by the State-owned assets regulatory institution; but the representatives of the staff and workers among the members on the board of supervisors shall be elected by the conference of the representatives of the staff and workers of the company. The chairman of the board of supervisors shall be designated by the State-owned assets regulatory institution from among the members on the board of supervisors.

The board of supervisors shall exercise the functions and powers stipulated by Subparagraphs (1), (2) and (3) in Article 54 of this Law and the other functions and powers prescribed by the State Council.

Chapter III Equity Transfer of Companies with Limited Liability

Article 72 Shareholders of a company with limited liability may mutually transfer all or a part of their equity to each other.

Where a shareholder intends to transfer his equity to a person other than a shareholder, the matter shall be subject to consent by more than half of the other shareholders. The shareholder shall inform, in writing, the other shareholders of his intention to transfer his equity in order to seek their consent. Where the other shareholders give no reply at the expiration of 30 days from the date they receive the written information, it shall be regarded as their consent to the transfer. Where half or more of the other shareholders do not give their consent to the transfer, they shall buy such equity; and the ones who do not do so shall be deemed as giving their consent to the transfer.

With regard to the equity the transfer of which is consented to by the shareholders, all the other shareholders shall have the right of first refusal under equal conditions. Where two or more shareholders claim to exercise the right of first refusal, they shall determine, through consultation, the proportions of the equity to be purchased by them respectively; and where consultation fails, they shall exercise the right of first refusal on the basis of the proportions of their respective capital contributions at the time when the equity is transferred.

Where the articles of association of a company stipulate otherwise on equity transfer, such stipulations shall prevail.

Article 73 When a people’s court transfers the equity of a shareholder in accordance with the procedures of compulsory execution as provided for by law, it shall notify the company and all the shareholders of the matter, and notify that the other shareholders shall have the right of first refusal under equal conditions. When at the expiration of 20 days from the date the other shareholders receive the notification from the people’s court, they have not exercised their right of first refusal, they shall be regarded as waiving such right.

Article 74 After the transfer of the equity in accordance with the provisions of Articles 72 and 73 of this Law, the company shall cancel the investment certificate of the original shareholder and issue an investment certificate to the new shareholder, and shall accordingly revise the records regarding the shareholders and their capital contributions in the company’s articles of association and in the roster of the shareholders. Such revisions made in the company’s articles of association need not be voted by the shareholders assembly.

Article 75 Under one of the following circumstances, where a shareholder votes against the resolution adopted by the shareholders assembly, he may request the company to purchase his equity at a reasonable price:

(1) The company fails to distribute its profits to the shareholders for five consecutive years, when it has been making profits for five years running and meets the conditions for distributing profits as is provided for by this Law;

(2) The company is to be merged or divided, or the principal part of its property is to be transferred; or

(3) When the period of business stipulated by the company’s articles of association expires or other situations originating the dissolution stipulated by the said articles of association arise, a resolution is adopted by the shareholders assembly to revise the articles of association for continued existence of the company.

Where a shareholder fails to reach an agreement on the equity purchase with the company within 60 days from the date the resolution is adopted by the shareholders assembly, he may bring a suit before a people’s court within 90 days from the date the resolution is adopted by the shareholders assembly.

Article 76 After the death of a shareholder, who is a natural person, his legal heir may inherit his qualification, except where otherwise provided for by the company’s articles of association.

Chapter IV Incorporation and Organizational Structure of a Company Limited by Shares

Section 1 Incorporation

Article 77 The following conditions shall be met if a company limited by shares is to be incorporated:

(1) The number of promoters conforms to the statutory number;

(2) The share capital subscribed for and raised by promoters reaches the statutory minimum amount of capital;

(3) The issue of shares and the preparations made for incorporation conform to the provisions of law;

(4) The company’s articles of association are formulated by the promoters, and such articles of association of a company incorporated by means of share offer are adopted at the inaugural meeting;

(5) The company has its name, and its organizational structure conforms to the requirements for a company limited by shares; and

(6) The company has its domicile.

Article 78 A company limited by shares may be incorporated by means of promotion or by means of share offer.

A company incorporated by means of promotion is one incorporated by the promoters subscribing for all the shares to be issued by the company.

A company incorporated by means of share offer is one incorporated by the promoters subscribing for a portion of the shares to be issued by the company, with the rest offered to the general public or to specific quarters.

Article 79 To incorporate a company limited by shares, there shall be not less than 2 but not more than 200 promoters, more than half of whom shall have their domiciles within the territory of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 80 The promoters of a company limited by shares shall undertake the matters concerning the preparation for incorporation of the company.

The promoters shall sign a promoters’ agreement, in which to define their respective rights and obligations in the process of the incorporation of the company.

Article 81 Where a company limited by shares is incorporated by means of promotion, its registered capital shall be the total amount of the share capital subscribed for by all the promoters, as is registered with the company registration authority. The initial capital subscriptions by all the promoters of the company shall be not less than 20 percent of the registered capital and the remainder shall be paid in full by the promoters within two years from the date the company is incorporated; in the case of an investment company, it may do so within five years. Before the money is furnished in full, the company shall not offer shares to others.

Where a company limited by shares is incorporated by means of share offer, its registered capital shall be the total amount of the actually received share capital as is registered with the company registration authority.

The minimum amount of the registered capital of a company limited by shares shall be 5,000,000 yuan. Where the minimum amount of the registered capital of a company limited by shares is greater than the said amount, as is stipulated by laws or administrative regulations, the provisions there shall prevail.

Article 82 The articles of association of a company limited by shares shall specify the following items:

(1) the name and domicile of the company;

(2) the scope of business of the company;

(3) the means of incorporation of the company;

(4) the total number of shares, the par value for each share and the registered capital of the company;

(5) the names or titles of the promoters, the number of shares subscribed for by them, or the forms and dates of their contributions;

(6) the composition, functions and powers of the board of directors and its rules of procedure;

(7) the legal representative of the company;

(8) the composition, functions and powers of the board of supervisors and its rules of procedure;

(9) methods for distribution of the company’s profits;

(10) the reasons for dissolution of the company and its liquidation methods;

(11) methods for notices and announcements of the company; and

(12) other items that the shareholders general assembly deems necessary to be specified.

Article 83 The provisions of Article 27 of this Law shall be applicable to the forms of contributions made by the promoters.

Article 84 Where a company limited by shares is incorporated by means of promotion, each of the promoters shall, in writing, subscribe for the full portion of the shares to be subscribed for by him as stipulated by the company’s articles of association; if a promoter offers to pay the subscriptions in a lump sum, he shall do so immediately; and if a promoter offers to pay the subscriptions by installments, he shall immediately pay for the first installment. Where a promoter invests with non-currency property, he shall go through the formalities for the transfer of his property rights according to law.

Where a promoter fails to pay the subscriptions in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, he shall be liable for the default in accordance with the promoters’ agreement.

After the initial payment of the subscriptions by the promoters, the board of directors and the board of supervisors shall be elected. The board of directors shall submit to the company registration authority the company’s articles of association, the capital verification certificate issued by the capital verification authority, which is set up according to law, and the other documents specified by laws or administrative regulations, in order to apply for registration of the incorporation of the company.

Article 85 Where a company limited by shares is incorporated by means of share offer, the shares subscribed for by the promoters shall be not less than 35 percent of the total number of the shares issued by the company; where laws or administrative regulations provide otherwise, the provisions there shall prevail.

Article 86 Where shares are to be offered to the general public, the promoters shall publish the prospectus of the company, and prepare subscription forms. In a subscription form shall clearly be stated the items specified by Article 87 of this Law, and the subscriber shall fill in the number of the shares subscribed for, the amount of money involved and his domicile, and shall sign and seal the form. The subscriber shall pay money for the number of the shares he subscribes for.

Article 87 The company’s articles of association formulated by the promoters shall be attached to a prospectus, in which the following items shall clearly be stated: (1) the number of shares subscribed for by the promoters;

(2) the par value and the issue price of each share;

(3) the total number of bearer shares issued;

(4) the purpose of the funds to be raised;

(5) the rights and obligations of the subscribers; and

(6) the dates of start and end for the share offer and a statement to the effect that subscribers may withdraw their share subscriptions when the shares are not fully subscribed for at the expiration of the time limit.

Article 88 Where promoters offer shares to the general public, the shares shall be underwritten by the securities company established according to law, and an underwriting agreement shall be concluded.

Article 89 Where promoters offer shares to the general public, they shall enter into an agreement with a bank on the collection of subscription moneys on their behalf.

The bank entrusted with collecting the subscription moneys shall, in accordance with the agreement, collect and keep the said moneys, issue receipts to the subscribers for their payments, and bear the obligation to issue certificates of receipt of moneys to relevant departments.

Article 90 After payment in full of the subscription moneys for the shares issued, such moneys shall be subject to verification by the capital verification authority established according to law, which shall produce a capital verification certificate. The promoters shall, within 30 days from the date the subscription moneys are paid in full, convene and preside over an inauguration assembly. An inauguration assembly shall be composed of all the promoters and subscribers.

Where the shares issued are not fully subscribed for at the date of expiration as specified in the prospectus, or the promoters fail to convene an inaugural meeting within 30 days from the date the subscription moneys for the shares issued are paid in full, the subscribers may claim refund from the promoters of their subscription moneys paid for the shares, plus their bank deposit interest calculated for the same period.

Article 91 The promoters shall notify each subscriber of the date of the inauguration assembly or make an announcement of such meeting 15 days prior to its convention. The inauguration assembly shall be convened only if the promoters and subscribers representing more than half of the total shares issued are present.

An inauguration assembly shall exercise the following functions and powers:

(1) to examine the promoters’ report on the preparations for the incorporation of the company;

(2) to adopt the articles of association of the company;

(3) to elect members of the board of directors;

(4) to elect the members of the board of supervisors;

(5) to examine and verify the expenses incurred for the incorporation of the company;

(6) to examine and verify the evaluation of the property used by the promoters to pay subscription moneys; and

(7) to adopt a resolution against the incorporation of the company in the event that a force majeure occurs or a major change takes place in the operational conditions, which directly affects the incorporation of the company.

A resolution adopted at the inaugural meeting on the items specified in the preceding paragraph shall be subject to adoption by the subscribers attending the meeting who have more than half of the voting rights.

Article 92 After payment of their subscription moneys or making their capital contributions as substitutes for their share subscriptions, the promoters and subscribers shall not withdraw their share capital except where the shares issued are not fully subscribed for within the time limit, or the promoters fail to convene an inaugural meeting on schedule, or a resolution against the incorporation of the company is adopted at the inaugural meeting.

Article 93 The board of directors shall, within 30 days from the date the inaugural meeting is closed, submit the following documents to the company registration authority to apply for registration of the incorporation of the company:

(1) the written application for registration of the company;

(2) the minutes of the inaugural meeting;

(3) the articles of association of the company;

(4) the capital verification certificate;

(5) the appointment documents and identification certificates of the legal representative, directors and supervisors;

(6) the qualification certificate of the promoter as a legal person or his identification certificate as a natural person; and

(7) the certificate of the domicile of the company.

In the case of a company limited by shares incorporated by means of share offer which publicly issues its shares, it shall, in addition, submit to the company registration authority the approval document issued by the securities regulatory authority under the State Council.

Article 94 Where after the incorporation of a company limited by shares, a promoter fails to pay in full the subscription moneys in accordance with the provisions of the company’s articles of association, he shall pay them in full; and the other promoters shall bear joint and several liability.

Where after the incorporation of a company limited by shares, it is discovered that the actual evaluation of the non-currency property used as capital contributions for the incorporation of the company is obviously less than the evaluation prescribed by the company’ articles of association, the promoters making such contributions shall make up the difference; and the other promoters shall bear joint and several liability.

Article 95 The promoters of a company limited by shares shall bear the following liabilities:

(1) Where the company cannot be incorporated, they shall bear the joint and several liability for all the debts and expenses incurred in the act of incorporation;

(2) Where the company cannot be incorporated, they shall bear the joint and several liability for refunding the subscription moneys paid by the subscribers, plus their bank deposit interest calculated for the same period of time; and

(3) Where the interests of the company are impaired due to the fault committed by the promoters in the process of the incorporation of the company, they shall bear the liability to pay compensation to the company.

Article 96 Where a company with limited liability is converted into a company limited by shares, the total amount of the actually received share capital to be converted shall not be greater than the amount of its net assets. Where a company with limited liability that is converted into a company limited by shares publicly issues shares for the purpose of increasing its capital, it shall do so according to law.

Article 97 A company limited by shares shall have its articles of association, the roster of the shareholders, the stubs of corporate bonds, the minutes of the meetings of the shareholders general assembly, the minutes of the meetings of the board of directors and of the board of supervisors, and the financial and accounting reports kept at the company.

Article 98 Shareholders shall have the right to consult the company’s articles of association, the roster of the shareholders, the stubs of corporate bonds, the minutes of the meetings of the shareholders general assembly, the resolutions adopted at the meetings of the board of directors and of the board of supervisors, and the financial and accounting reports, and shall have the right to put forward proposals on or to make inquiries about the business operation of the company.

Section 2 Shareholders General Assembly

Article 99 The shareholders general assembly of a company limited by shares shall be composed of all the shareholders. The shareholders general assembly is the organ of power of the company and shall exercise its functions and powers according to this Law.

Article 100 The provisions of the first paragraph of Article 38 of this Law on the functions and powers of the shareholders assembly of a company with limited liability shall be applicable to the shareholders asembly of a company limited by shares.

Article 101 The annual meeting of the shareholders general assembly shall be convened once a year. An interim meeting shareholders general assembly shall be convened within two months where one of the following situations occurs:

(1) When the number of directors is less than the number prescribed by this Law, or less than two-thirds of the number required by the company’s articles of association;

(2) When the amount of the losses that the company has left unrecouped reaches one-third of the total share capital actually received;

(3) When a shareholder individually holding, or the shareholders together holding, more than 10 percent of the company’s shares request(s) to convene such a meeting;

(4) When the board of directors deems it necessary;

(5) When the board of supervisors proposes to convene such a meeting; or

(6) When other situations stipulated by the company’s articles of association occur.

Article 102 A meeting of the shareholders general assembly shall be convened by the board of directors and presided over by the chairman of the board; where the chairman cannot perform the function or fails to do so, the vice-chairman shall preside over such a meeting; and where the vice-chairman cannot perform the function or fails to do so, a director jointly elected by more than half of the directors shall preside over it.

Where the board of directors cannot perform or fails to perform the duty of convening a meeting of the shareholders general assembly, the board of supervisors shall, in time, convene and preside over such a meeting; and where the board of supervisors fails to convene and preside over the meeting, the shareholder individually holding, or the shareholders together holding, more than 10 percent of the company’s shares for 90 or more consecutive days may convene and preside over the meeting of his or their own accord.

Article 103 Where a meeting of the shareholders general assembly is to be convened, the shareholders shall, 20 days prior to the convening of such a meeting, be notified of the time and place of the meeting to be convened and of the matters to be deliberated at the meeting; where an interim meeting of the shareholders general assembly is to be convened, the shareholders shall be notified of it 15 days prior to the convening of the meeting; and where bearer shares are to be issued, an announcement of the time and place of the meeting to be convened and the matters to be deliberated at the meeting shall be made 30 days prior to its convention.

A shareholder individually holding, or the shareholders together holding, more than three percent of the shares of the company may make provisional proposals and submit them in writing to the board of directors 10 days prior to the convening of the meeting of the shareholders general assembly; and the board of directors shall notify the other shareholders of such proposals within two days from the date it receives the proposals and shall submit them to the shareholders general assembly for deliberation. The content of the provisional proposals shall be kept within the scope of the functions and powers of the shareholders general assembly, and the proposals shall contain explicit subjects for discussion and specific matters for resolution.

No resolutions on matters not clearly stated in the notifications mentioned in the preceding two paragraphs shall be adopted at a meeting of the shareholders general assembly.

Where holders of bearer shares intend to attend a meeting of the shareholders general assembly, they shall deposit their share certificates with the company for a period beginning from five days prior to the convening of the meeting to the end of the meeting.

Article 104 Shareholders attending a meeting of the shareholders general assembly shall have the right to one vote for each share held, but the company itself shall have no right to vote for the shares held.

A resolution to be made by the shareholders general assembly shall be subject to adoption by more than half of the voting rights held by the shareholders present at the meeting. But resolutions to be made by the shareholders general assembly on revision of the company’s articles of association, on increase or reduction of the registered capital, on merger, division, dissolution or transformation of the company shall be subject to adoption by more than two-thirds of the voting rights held by the shareholders present at the meeting.

Article 105 With regard to such matters as transfer and assignment of major assets of a company and provision of guarantee for another entity which are subject to resolution by the shareholders general assembly, as prescribed by this Law and the company’s articles of association, the board of directors shall, in a timely manner, convene a meeting of the shareholders general assembly, at which to hold a vote on the matters mentioned above.

Article 106 For election of directors or supervisors by the shareholders general assembly, the system of cumulative voting may be practiced in accordance with the provisions of the company’s articles of association or the resolution adopted by the shareholders general assembly.

For the purposes of this Law, the system of cumulative voting means that for election of directors or supervisors by the shareholders general assembly, the number of voting rights allocated to each share is equal to the number of directors or supervisors to be elected and such voting rights held by the shareholders may be pooled.

Article 107 A shareholder may entrust a proxy to attend a meeting of the shareholders general assembly. The proxy shall present the shareholder’s power of attorney to the company, and shall exercise the voting rights within the scope of authorization.

Article 108 Decisions on matters discussed at a meeting of the shareholders general assembly shall be minuted down, and the chairperson and the directors present at the meeting shall sign the minutes. The minutes of the meeting shall be kept together with the roster of the signatures of the shareholders attending the meeting and the powers of attorney of the proxies attending the meeting.

Section 3 Board of Directors, and the Manager

Article 109 A company limited by shares shall have a board of directors composed of 5 to 19 members.

The board of directors may, among the members, have representatives from among the staff and workers of the company. Such representatives on a board of directors shall be democratically elected by the staff and workers of the company through the conference of the representatives of the staff and workers, the general meeting of the staff and workers, or through other forms.

The provisions in Article 46 of this Law on the term of office of a director of a company with limited liability shall be applicable to the director of a company limited by shares.

The provisions in Article 47 of this Law on the functions and powers of the board of directors of a company with limited liability shall be applicable to the board of directors of a company limited by shares.

Article 110 A board of directors shall have one chairman and may have a vice-chairman. The chairman and vice-chairman of the board of directors shall be elected by more than half of all the directors.

The chairman of the board of directors shall convene and preside over the meetings of the board, and shall inspect the implementation of the resolutions adopted by the board of directors. The vice-chairman of the board of directors shall assist the chairman in his work. Where the chairman cannot perform the functions or fails to do so, the vice-chairman shall perform the functions; and where the vice-chairman cannot perform the functions or fails to do so, a director jointly elected by more than half of the directors shall perform the functions.

Article 111 The meeting of the board of directors shall be convened at least twice a year. All the directors and supervisors shall be notified of such a meeting 10 days prior to its convention.

Shareholders representing more than one-tenth of the voting rights, more than one-third of the directors, or the board of supervisors may propose to convene an interim meeting of the board of directors. The chairman of the board shall convene and preside over such a meeting within 10 days from the date he receives the proposal.

The form of notification and the time limit for notification in respect of the convening of an interim meeting of the board of directors may be separately prescribed.

Article 112 A meeting of the board of directors shall be held only if more than half of all the directors are present. Any of the resolutions made by the board shall be subject to adoption by more than half of all the directors.

The one-person one-vote system shall be practiced when resolutions of the board of directors are put to the vote.

Article 113 Meetings of the board of directors shall be attended by the directors in person. If a director cannot attend a meeting of the board for one reason or another, he may, in writing, entrust another director with attending the meeting on his behalf, and in the power of attorney shall clearly indicate the scope of authorization.

Decisions on matters discussed at a meeting of the board of directors shall be minuted down, and the minutes of the meeting shall be signed by the directors present.

Directors shall be liable for the resolutions adopted by the board of directors. Where a resolution of the board violates laws, administrative regulations, or the company’s articles of association, or the resolutions of the shareholders general assembly, and thus causes serious losses to the company, the directors participating in the adoption of such a resolution shall be liable for compensation to the company. However, where a director is proved to have expressed his objection to such a resolution when it was put to the vote and his objection was recorded in the minutes of the meeting, he may be exempted from such liability.

Article 114 A company limited by shares shall have a manager, who shall be engaged or dismissed by decision of the board of directors.

The provisions in Article 50 of this Law on the functions and powers of the manager of a company with limited liability shall be applicable to the manager of a company limited by shares.

Article 115 The board of directors may decide that one of its members shall concurrently serve as the manager of the company.

Article 116 A company shall not provide loans, directly or through its subsidiary, to its directors, supervisors or senior managers.

Article 117 A company shall regularly disclose to its shareholders information about the remunerations obtained by the directors, supervisors and senior managers from the company.

Section 4 Board of supervisors

Article 118 A company limited by shares shall have a board of supervisors, which shall be composed of not less than three members.

A board of supervisors shall include representatives of shareholders, and representatives of the staff and workers of the company in an appropriate proportion, which shall be not less than one-third of the total number of members on the board of supervisors. The specific proportion shall be prescribed by the company’s articles of association. The representatives of the staff and workers on the board of supervisors shall be democratically elected by the staff and workers of the company through the conference of the representatives of the staff and workers, or the general meeting of the staff and workers, or through other forms.

The board of supervisors shall have one chairman and may have one vice-chairman. Both shall be elected by more than half of all the supervisors. The chairman of the board of supervisors shall convene and preside over the meeting of the board; where the chairman of the board of supervisors cannot perform the functions or fails to do so, the vice-chairman shall convene and preside over the meeting of the board; and where the vice-chairman cannot perform the functions or fails to do so, a supervisor jointly elected by half or more of the supervisors shall convene and preside over the meeting of the board.

A director or senior manager shall not concurrently serve as supervisor.

The provisions in Article 53 of this Law on the term of office of a supervisor of a company with limited liability shall be applicable to the supervisor of a company limited by shares.

Article 119 The provisions in Articles 54 and 55 of this Law on the functions and powers of the board of supervisors of a company with limited liability shall be applicable to the board of supervisors of a company limited by shares.

The expenses necessary for the exercise of the functions and powers of the board of supervisors shall be borne by the company.

Article 120 The board of supervisors shall convene a meeting at least once every six months. Supervisors may propose to convene an interim meeting of the board of supervisors.

The mode of the meeting and the voting procedure of the board of supervisors shall, in addition to the provisions of this Law, be stipulated by the company’s articles of association.

A resolution made by the board of supervisors shall be subject to adoption by more than half of the supervisors.

Decisions on matters discussed at a meeting of the board of supervisors shall be minuted down, and the minutes of the meeting shall be signed by all the supervisors present.

Section 5 Special Provisions on Organizational Structure of Listed Companies

Article 121 For the purposes of this Law, a listed company means a company limited by shares which has its shares listed and traded at stock exchanges.

Article 122 Where a listed company purchases or sells major assets within one year, or the amount of guarantee exceeds 30 percent of its total assets, the matter shall be subject to resolution by the shareholders general assembly, which shall be subject to adoption by the shareholders present who hold two-thirds or more of the voting rights.

Article 123 A listed company shall have independent directors. The specific measures in this regard shall be formulated by the State Council.

Article 124 A listed company shall have a secretary of the board of directors, who shall be in charge of such matters as preparation for the meetings of the shareholders general assembly and of the board of directors of the company, safekeeping of documents, management of data on the company’s shareholders and disclosure of information.

Article 125 Where the director of a listed company is affiliated with an enterprise that is involved in the matters on which a resolution is to be made at a meeting of the board of directors, he shall not exercise his voting right on such resolution, nor shall he exercise the voting right on behalf of another director. Such a meeting of the board of directors may be held with the attendance of more than half of the directors who are not affiliated with the enterprise, and the resolution made at the meeting of the board shall be subject to adoption by more than half of the unaffiliated directors. Where the number of unaffiliated directors present at the meeting of the board is less than three persons, the matters shall be submitted to the shareholders general assembly of the listed company for deliberation.

Chapter V Issue and Transfer of Shares of Companies Limited by Shares

Section 1 Issue of Shares

Article 126 The capital of a company limited by shares shall be divided into shares of equal value.

The shares of the company shall take the form of share certificates, which are vouchers issued by the company to certify the shares held by its shareholders.

Article 127 The shares shall be issued in compliance with the principles of fairness and impartiality. The shares of the same class must carry the same rights.

Shares of the same class issued at the same time shall be issued on the same conditions and at the same price. All units and individuals shall pay the same price for each of the share they subscribe for.

Article 128 Shares may be issued at or above their par value, but shall not be issued below their par value.

Article 129 Share certificates may be in paper form or in other forms as prescribed by the securities regulatory authority under the State Council.

The following main items shall clearly be indicated on a share certificate:

(1) the name of the company;

(2) the date of the company’s incorporation;

(3) the class of the shares, the par value and the number of shares represented by the certificate; and

(4) the serial number of the share certificate.

A share certificate shall be signed by the legal representative and sealed by the company.

The words promoter’s share certificate shall clearly be indicated on the share certificates issued to promoters.

Article 130 Shares issued by a company may be either registered shares or bearer shares.

Shares issued by a company to promoters and legal persons shall be registered shares, on which shall be indicated the titles or names of the promoters or legal persons. Such shares shall not be registered in other names or names of their representatives.

Article 131 Where registered shares are issued, the company shall prepare a roster of the shareholders, in which the following items shall be recorded:

(1) the titles or names, and domiciles of the shareholders;

(2) the number of shares held by each shareholder;

(3) the serial numbers of the share certificates held by each shareholder; and

(4) the date on which each shareholder obtains his shares.

Where bearer shares are issued, the company shall keep a record of the number, the serial numbers and the issue date of the share certificates.

Article 132 The State Council may formulate separate regulations on the shares of other classes issued by companies, which are not provided for in this Law.

Article 133 A company limited by shares shall formally deliver its share certificates to the shareholders immediately after its incorporation. The company shall not deliver its share certificates to the shareholders prior to its incorporation.

Article 134 Where a company issues new shares, a resolution on the following matters shall be adopted by the shareholders general assembly:

(1) the class and number of the new shares;

(2) the issue price of the new shares;

(3) the opening and closing dates for the issue of the new shares; and

(4) the class and number of the new shares issued to the existing shareholders.

Article 135 When a company publicly issues new shares upon verification and approval by the securities regulatory authority under the State Council, it shall announce its prospectus on the new share offer and its financial reports, and shall prepare subscription application forms.

The provisions of Articles 88 and 89 of this Law shall be applicable to the issue of new shares by a company to the public.

Article 136 Where a company issues new shares, it may, on the basis of its operational and financial conditions, decide on a proposal on the price of the new shares.

Article 137 Where the new shares issued by a company are fully subscribed for, the company shall apply to the company registration authority for the registration of modification in its capital and shall make an announcement thereafter.

Section 2 Transfer of Shares

Article 138 Shares held by shareholders may be transferred in accordance with law.

Article 139 Shareholders shall transfer their shares through stock exchanges established in accordance with law or through other forms prescribed by the State Council.

Article 140 Registered shares shall be transferred by means of endorsement by shareholders or by such other means as provided for by laws or administrative regulations; and after such transfer, the company shall register the names or titles and domiciles of the transferees in its roster of shareholders.

No registration of modification to the roster of shareholders as stipulated by the preceding paragraph shall be made within the period of 20 days prior to the convening of a meeting of the shareholders general assembly or within the period of 5 days prior to the date of record on which the company decides to distribute dividends. However, where laws provide otherwise in respect of registration of modification made to the roster of the shareholders of listed companies, the provisions there shall prevail.

Article 141 Transfer of bearer shares shall become effective immediately after a shareholder delivers such share certificates to a transferee.

Article 142 Shares held by the promoters of a company shall not be transferred within one year from the date the company is incorporated. Shares issued prior to the public issue by a company shall not be transferred within one year from the date the shares of the company are listed and traded at stock exchanges.

Directors, supervisors and senior managers of a company shall declare to the company the numbers of the company’s shares held by them and the changes of the shares they hold, and the number of the company’s shares annually transferred by each of them during their term of office shall not exceed 25 percent of the total number of the company’s shares held by them respectively; and the company’s shares held by them shall not be transferred within one year from the date the shares of the company are listed and traded. The company’s shares held by the persons mentioned above shall not be transferred within six months after they leave office. The company’s articles of association may stipulate other restrictive provisions on the transfer of the company’s shares held by the directors, supervisors and senior managers of the company.

Article 143 A company shall not purchase its own shares, except where:

(1) It reduces its registered capital;

(2) It merges with another company that holds its shares;

(3) It rewards the staff and workers of the company with its shares; or

(4) A shareholder requests the company to purchase his shares because he holds objections to the resolution on the merger or division of the company adopted by the shareholders general assembly.

Purchase of its own shares by a company due to the reasons specified in Subparagraph (1), (2) or (3) of the preceding paragraph shall be subject to resolution adopted by the shareholders general assembly. Where a company purchases its own shares on grounds of Subparagraph (1) as specified in the preceding paragraph, such shares shall be cancelled within 10 days from the date it purchases them; and where the shares are purchased on grounds of Subparagraph (2) or (4), such shares shall be transferred or cancelled within six months.

The number of its own shares purchased by a company in accordance with the provisions of Subparagraph (3) of the first paragraph shall not exceed five percent of the total number of the shares issued by the company; the funds used for such purchase shall be allotted from the after-tax profits of the company; and the shares purchased shall be transferred to its staff and workers within one year.

A company shall not accept its own shares as the subject matter of a mortgage.

Article 144 Where registered share certificates are stolen, lost or destroyed, the shareholder may, in accordance with the procedure for public notice for assertion of claims provided for in the Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China, request a people’s court to declare such share certificates void. After the people’s court has declared the said share certificates void, the shareholder may apply to the company for replacement of such share certificates.

Article 145 A listed company shall have its shares listed and traded in accordance with relevant laws, administrative regulations and the rules of stock exchanges governing transactions.

Article 146 A listed company shall, in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, disclose its financial and business situations and its major litigations, and shall publicize its financial reports every six months of each fiscal year.

Chapter VI Qualifications and Obligations of Directors, Supervisors and Senior Managers of Companies

Article 147 None of the following persons shall serve as a director, supervisor, or senior manager of a company:

(1) a person who has no or limited capacity for civil conduct;

(2) a person who was sentenced to criminal punishment for embezzlement, bribery, seizure of property or misappropriation of property or for sabotage of the socialist market economic order, where less than five years have elapsed after the expiration of the period of execution; or a person who was deprived of his political rights for the commission of a crime, where less than five years have elapsed after the expiration of the period of execution;

(3) a person who, being a director or the head or manager of a company or enterprise that went into bankruptcy and liquidation, was personally liable for the bankruptcy of the said company or enterprise, where less than three years have elapsed from the date liquidation of the company or enterprise is completed;

(4) a person who, being the legal representative of a company or an enterprise, the business license of which was revoked for violation of law and which was ordered to close down, was personally liable for the above, where less than three years have elapsed from the date the business license of the company or enterprise is revoked; or

(5) a person who fails to liquidate a relatively large amount of personal debts when they are due.

Where a company elects or appoints its directors or supervisors, or engages its senior managers in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, such election, appointment or engagement shall be invalid.

Where, during his term of office, a director, supervisor or senior manager is found to be a person as specified in the first paragraph of this Article, the company shall remove him from office.

Article 148 Directors, supervisors and senior managers of a company shall observe laws, administrative regulations and the company’s articles of association and shall assume the duties of loyalty and diligence to the company.

Directors, supervisors and senior managers of a company shall not take advantage of their functions and powers to accept bribes or collect other illicit earnings, and shall not take illegal possession of the property of the company.

Article 149 A director or senior manager shall not commit the following acts:

(1) misappropriating the funds of the company;

(2) opening an account in his own name or in the name of another person to deposit the funds of the company;

(3) in violation of the stipulations of the company’s articles of association or without the consent of the shareholders assembly, the shareholders general assembly or the board of directors, loaning the funds of the company to another person or using the property of the company to provide guarantee for another person;

(4) in violation of the stipulations of the company’s articles of association or without the consent of the shareholders assembly or the shareholders general assembly, entering into a contract or conducting transactions with the company;

(5) without the consent of the shareholders assembly or the shareholders general assembly, taking advantage of his position to seek commercial opportunities, which belong to the company, for himself or for another person, or operating for himself or for another person the same kind of business as that of the company where he is holding a post;

(6) taking into his own possession the commissions from transactions conducted by another person with the company;

(7) disclosing secrets of the company without authorization; or

(8) other acts committed in violation of the duty of loyalty to the company.

All earnings derived by the directors or senior managers in violation of the provisions in the preceding paragraph shall be returned to the company.

Article 150 Where a director, supervisor or senior manager violates laws, administrative regulations or the company’s articles of association in performance of his duties for the company, and thus causes losses to the company, he shall be liable for compensation.

Article 151 Where the shareholders assembly or the shareholders general assembly requests directors, supervisors or senior managers to be present at its meeting, the latter shall attend the meeting as non-voting participants and subject themselves to inquires by the shareholders.

Directors or senior managers shall truthfully provide relevant information and data to the board of supervisors or the supervisors of a company with limited liability where there is no such board of supervisors, and shall not hinder the exercise of the functions and powers by the board of supervisors or the supervisors.

Article 152 Where a director or senior manager causes losses to the company, as specified in Article 150 of this Law, the shareholders of a company with limited liability, or the shareholders of a company limited by shares individually or jointly holding one percent or more of its shares for 180 or more consecutive days may request, in writing, the board of supervisors or the supervisors of the company with limited liability where there is no such board to bring a lawsuit to a people’s court; and where a supervisor causes losses to the company, as specified in Article 150 of this Law, the shareholders mentioned above may request, in writing, the board of directors or the executive director of a company with limited liability where there is no such board to bring a lawsuit to a people’s court.

Where the board of supervisors or the supervisor of a company with limited liability where there is no such board, or the board of directors, or the executive director refuses to take legal proceedings after receiving the written request from the shareholders as specified in the preceding paragraph, or fails to take legal proceedings within 30 days from the date it/he receives such request, or under emergency situations, failure to take legal proceedings immediately results in irreparable damage to the interests of the company, the shareholders specified in the preceding paragraph shall have the right, in their own names, directly to bring a lawsuit to a people’s court in the interests of the company.

Where another person infringes upon the lawful rights and interests of a company and thus causes losses to the company, the shareholders specified in the first paragraph of this Article may bring a lawsuit to a people’s court in accordance with the provisions of the preceding two paragraphs.

Article 153 Where a director or senior manager violates the provisions of laws, administrative regulations or the company’s articles of association and thus damages the interests of the shareholders, the shareholders may bring a lawsuit to a people’s court.

Chapter VII Corporate Bonds

Article 154 For the purposes of this Law, corporate bonds mean negotiable instruments issued by a company in accordance with the statutory procedures and with an agreement reached on the repayment of the principal and the payment of the interests within a given period of time.

To issue corporate bonds, a company shall meet the requirements for such issue as provided for by the Securities Law of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 155 After an application for the issue of corporate bonds is verified and approved by the department authorized by the State Council, the company shall announce the method of offer of the corporate bonds.

The following main items shall be specified in the method for offer of the corporate bonds:

(1) the name of the company;

(2) the purpose of use of the funds raised in bond form;

(3) the total amount of the bonds and their par value;

(4) the method of determining the interest rate of the bonds;

(5) the time limit for and the method of repaying the principal and paying the interest;

(6) security for the bonds;

(7) the issue price of the bonds and the beginning and ending dates for bond issue;

(8) the net assets value of the company;

(9) the total amount of the undue bonds issued by the company; and

(10) the underwriting agency of the corporate bonds.

Article 156 Where a company issues its bonds in the form of certificate, such certificate shall clearly carry thereon items such as the name of the company, the par value, the interest rate, and the time limit for repayment, and shall be signed by the legal representative and sealed by the company.

Article 157 Corporate bonds may be registered bonds and may also be bearer bonds.

Article 158 To issue corporate bonds, the company shall prepare the counterfoils of such bonds.

Where registered corporate bonds are issued, the following items shall be specified in the counterfoils of the corporate bonds:

(1) the name or title and domicile of the bondholder;

(2) the date on which the bondholder acquired the bonds and their serial numbers;

(3) the total amount of the bonds, the par value of the bonds, the interest rate and the time limit for and the method of repayment of the principal and payment of interest; and

(4) the issue date of the bonds.

Where bearer corporate bonds are issued, the total amount of the bonds, the interest rate, the time limit for and the method of repayment, the issue date and the serial numbers of the bonds shall be specified in the stubs of the corporate bonds.

Article 159 The registration and clearing institution of registered corporate bonds shall establish systems relating to registration and custody of bonds, interest payment, encashment, etc.

Article 160 Corporate bonds may be transferred, and the price for the transfer shall be agreed upon by the transferor and transferee.

Where corporate bonds are listed and traded at stock exchanges, their transfer shall be conducted in accordance with the rules of the stock exchanges governing transactions.

Article 161 Registered corporate bonds shall be transferred by means of endorsement by the bondholders or by other means as provided for by laws or administrative regulations; and after such transfer, the company shall record the name or title and the domicile of the transferee in the stub of the corporate bonds.

Where bearer corporate bonds are transferred, the transfer shall become effective immediately after a bondholder delivers such bonds to a transferee.

Article 162 Upon resolution adopted by its shareholders general assembly, a listed company may issue corporate bonds that can be converted into shares. The specific measures for conversion shall be stipulated in the method of offer of the corporate bonds. The issue of such convertible corporate bonds by a listed company shall be subject to verification and approval by the securities regulatory authority under the State Council.

Where corporate bonds convertible into shares are issued, the words convertible corporate bond shall be clearly indicated on such bonds, and the amount of the convertible corporate bonds shall be recorded in the stubs of such bonds.

Article 163 A company that issues corporate bonds convertible into shares shall convert the bonds of the bondholders into shares in accordance with the conversion measures. However, the bondholders shall have the option whether or not to convert their bonds into shares.

Chapter VIII Financial Affairs and Accounting of Companies

Article 164 A company shall establish its financial and accounting system in accordance with the provisions of laws, administrative regulations and the rules of the finance department under the State Council.

Article 165 At the end of each fiscal year, a company shall prepare its financial reports, which shall be audited by an accounting firm according to law.

Financial reports shall be prepared in accordance with the provisions of laws, administrative regulations and the rules of the finance department under the State Council.

Article 166 A company with limited liability shall send its financial report to each of its shareholders within the time limit stipulated in its articles of association.

A company limited by shares shall, 20 days prior to the convening of the annual meeting of the shareholders general assembly, make the financial report available at the company for examination by its shareholders; and a company limited by shares that publicly issues its shares shall publicize its financial report.

Article 167 Where a company distributes the annual after-tax profits, it shall allocate 10 percent of its profits for the statutory surplus fund. Where the accumulated amount of the statutory surplus fund of the company exceeds 50 percent of its registered capital, further allocation may be dispensed with.

Where the statutory surplus fund of a company is insufficient to make up the company’s losses of the previous year, the company shall, first of all, apply its annual profits to making up its losses prior to allocation for the statutory surplus fund in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

After allocating after-tax profits for the surplus fund, a company may, upon resolution adopted by the shareholders assembly or the shareholders general assembly, allocate after-tax profits for its discretionary surplus fund.

After making up its losses and making allocations for its surplus fund, a company with limited liability shall distribute the remaining after-tax profits in accordance with the provisions of Article 35 of this Law; and a company limited by shares shall distribute them to its shareholders in proportion to the shares held by each shareholder, except where the articles of association of the company limited by shares stipulate that such profits shall not be distributed in proportion to the shares held.

Where the shareholders assembly, the shareholders general assembly or the board of directors, in violation of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, distributes profits to the shareholders before the company makes up its losses and makes allocation for the statutory surplus fund, the shareholders shall return to the company the profits distributed to them in violation of the provisions.

No profits shall be distributed to a company for its own shares.

Article 168 The premium income derived from the shares issued above par value by a company limited by shares, and other income which, according to the rules set by the finance department under the State Council, should be enlisted into the capital surplus fund shall be put into the capital surplus fund of the company.

Article 169 The surplus fund of a company shall be used to make up for the company’s losses or to expand production and operation of the company, or shall be converted into an increase in the company’s capital. However, the capital surplus fund shall not be used for making up the losses of the company.

Where the statutory surplus fund is converted capital, the remaining amount of such surplus fund shall not be less than 25 percent of the registered capital prior to such conversion.

Article 170 Appointment or dismissal of an accounting firm in charge of the auditing business of a company shall be subject to decision by the shareholders assembly, the shareholders general assembly or the board of directors in accordance with the provisions of the company’s articles of association.

Where the shareholders assembly, the shareholders general assembly or the board of directors of a company votes on the dismissal of an accounting firm, it shall allow the accounting firm to state its opinions.

Article 171 A company shall provide authentic and complete accounting vouchers, accounting books, financial and accounting reports and other accounting data to the accounting firm it appoints, and shall not refuse to do so, or conceal the facts or make false reports about them.

Article 172 A company shall not have any other accounting books in addition to the statutory accounting books.

No accounts shall be opened in the name of any individual for deposit of the assets of a company.

Chapter IX Merger and Division of Companies, Increase and Reduction of Capital

Article 173 Merger of companies may take the form of merger by amalgamation or merger by new establishment.

When a company has another company amalgamated with it, it is merger by amalgamation, and the amalgamated company shall be dissolved. When two or more companies merge to establish a new company, it is merger for new establishment, and all parties being merged shall be dissolved.

Article 174 When companies merge, the parties to the merger shall sign a merger agreement, and draw up a balance sheet and a detailed inventory of assets. The companies shall, within 10 days from the date the resolution on such merger is adopted, notify their creditors of the intended merger, and make an announcement about it in the newspaper within 30 days therefrom. The creditors may, within 30 days from the date they receive the written notice, or within 45 days from the date the announcement is made in case of those who have not received the written notice, claim full repayment of their debts or provision of a corresponding guarantee from the companies.

Article 175 When companies merge, the claims and debts of all the parties to the merger shall be succeeded to by the company that continues to exist after the merger or by the newly established company.

Article 176 Where a company proceeds into a division, its assets shall be divided appropriately.

When a company intends to divide itself, it shall draw up a balance sheet and a detailed inventory of assets. The company shall, within 10 days from the date the resolution on such division is adopted, notify its creditors of the intended division, and make an announcement about it in the newspaper within 30 days therefrom.

Article 177 The companies after the division shall assume joint and several liability for the debts prior to the division, except where the company before the division and its creditors have otherwise reached a written agreement on repayment of the debts.

Article 178 Where a company needs to reduce its registered capital, it shall draw up a balance sheet and a detailed inventory of assets.

The company shall, within 10 days from the date a resolution on reduction of its registered capital is adopted, notify its creditors of such resolution, and shall make an announcement in the newspaper within 30 days therefrom. The creditors shall, within 30 days from the date they receive the written notice, or within 45 days from the date the announcement is made in the case of those who have not received such written notice, have the right to claim full repayment of their debts or provision of a corresponding guarantee from the company.

After reduction of the capital, the amount of the company’s registered capital shall not be less than the statutory minimum.

Article 179 Where a company with limited liability increases its registered capital, the capital contributions to newly increased shares subscribed for by the shareholders shall be governed by the relevant provisions of this Law on payment of capital contributions in connection with the incorporation of a company with limited liability.

Where a company limited by shares issues new shares to increase its registered capital, subscription for new shares by the shareholders shall be governed by the relevant provisions of this Law on payment of share subscriptions in connection with the incorporation of a company limited by shares.

Article 180 Where the merger or division of a company involves changes in the registered items, such changes shall, in accordance with law, be registered with the company registration authority; where a company is dissolved, it shall apply for cancellation of its registration according to law; and where a new company is incorporated, it shall have its incorporation registered according to law.

Where a company increases or reduces its registered capital, it shall apply to the company registration authority for registration of such change according to law.

Chapter X Dissolution and Liquidation of Companies

Article 181 A company shall be dissolved for one of the following reasons:

(1) Where the term of business operation as stipulated in the company’s articles of association expires or other causes for dissolution as stipulated in the articles of association occur;

(2) Where a resolution on dissolution is adopted by the shareholders assembly or the shareholders general assembly;

(3) Where merger or division of the company necessitates its dissolution;

(4) Where the business license of the company is revoked, or the company is ordered to close down, or its registration is cancelled, according to law; or

(5) Where the people’s court has the company dissolved in accordance with the provisions of Article 183 of this Law.

Article 182 Where a company finds itself in the conditions as prescribed in Subparagraph (1) of Article 181 of this Law, it may continue to exist through revision of its articles of association.

In the case of a company with limited liability, revision of the articles of association in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph shall be subject to adoption by the shareholders who hold more than two-thirds of the voting rights; and in the case of a company limited by shares, such a revision shall be subject to adoption by the shareholders present at the meeting of the shareholders general assembly, who hold more than two-thirds of the voting rights.

Article 183 Where a company is confronted with serious difficulties in operation and management, its continued existence may cause grievous losses to the interests of its shareholders and the difficulties cannot be surmounted through other channels, the shareholders holding more than 10 percent of the total number of the voting rights held by all the shareholders of the company may request a people’s court to dissolve the company.

Article 184 Where a company is dissolved because of the reasons specified in Subparagraph (1), (2), (4) or (5) of Article 181 of this Law, it shall, within 15 days from the date the reasons for dissolution prevail, set up a liquidation team to begin liquidation. The liquidation team of a company with limited liability shall be composed of its shareholders; and the liquidation team of a company limited by shares shall be composed of its directors or the persons decided on by the shareholders general assembly. Where a company fails to set up a liquidation team to conduct liquidation at the expiration of the prescribed time limit, its creditors may apply to a people’s court for designating relevant persons to form a liquidation team for liquidation. The people’s court shall accept the application and shall, in a timely manner, organize a liquidation team to conduct liquidation.

Article 185 During the period of liquidation, a liquidation team shall exercise the following functions and powers:

(1) to check up on the property of the company and draw up a balance sheet and an inventory of its assets separately;

(2) to notify the creditors by notice or announcement;

(3) to dispose of and liquidate the company’s unfinished business;

(4) to pay off the tax arrears and the taxes generated in the process of liquidation;

(5) to clear up claims and debts;

(6) to dispose of the property remaining after the company pays off its debts; and

(7) to participate in civil lawsuits on behalf of the company.

Article 186 A liquidation team shall, within 10 days from the date it is established, notify the creditors of its establishment and make an announcement in the newspaper within 60 days therefrom. The creditors shall declare their claims to the liquidation team within 30 days from the date they receive the written notice, or within 45 days from the date the announcement is made, in the case of those who have not received such notice.

When declaring his claims, a creditor shall specify the matters in respect of each claim, and provide supporting materials. The liquidation team shall register the claims.

During the period when creditors declare their claims, the liquidation team shall not pay off the debts to them.

Article 187 After the liquidation team has checked up on the property of a company and drawn up the balance sheet and the inventory of assets, it shall work out a liquidation plan and submit the plan to the shareholders assembly, the shareholders general assembly or a people’s court for confirmation.

After a company pays off respectively the liquidation expenses, the wages of its staff and workers, the social insurance premiums and the statutory compensations, pays its tax arrears and clears up its debts, the remaining property of a company with limited liability shall be distributed in proportion to the capital contributions made by its shareholders; and the remaining property of a company limited by shares shall be distributed in proportion to the shares held by its shareholders.

During the period of liquidation, the company shall continue to exist, but it shall not engage in any operational activities not related to liquidation. The property of the company shall not be distributed to its shareholders before it has made the payments as specified in the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

Article 188 If, after checking up on the property of a company and drawing up the balance sheet and the inventory of its property, a liquidation team discovers that the property of the company is insufficient to pay off its debts, it shall, in accordance with law, apply to a people’s court for declaration of bankruptcy of the company.

After the people’s court has ruled to declare the company bankrupt, the liquidation team shall turn the liquidation matters over to the people’s court.

Article 189 After the liquidation of a company is completed, the liquidation team shall prepare a liquidation report and submit the report to the shareholders assembly, the shareholders general assembly or the people’s court for confirmation, and shall submit it to the company registration authority in order to apply for cancellation of the registration of the company and shall announce termination of the company.

Article 190 Members of a liquidation team shall be devoted to their duties and perform their liquidation obligations according to law.

Members of a liquidation team shall not take advantage of their functions and powers to accept bribes or other illegal income, or to take illegal possession of the property of the company.

Where a member of the liquidation team causes losses to the company or its creditors intentionally or through gross negligence, he shall be liable for compensation.

Article 191 Where a company is declared bankrupt according to law, bankruptcy liquidation shall be conducted in accordance with the law on enterprise bankruptcy.

Chapter XI Branches of Foreign Companies

Article 192 For the purposes of this Law, a foreign company is one that is incorporated outside the territory of the People’s Republic of China in accordance with the law of a foreign country.

Article 193 Where a foreign company intends to establish a branch within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, it shall submit an application to the competent authority in China together with such relevant documents as its articles of association and the company’s registration certificate issued by its country. Upon approval, it shall, according to law, apply to the company registration authority for registration before obtaining a business license for its branch.

Measures for examining and approving the establishment of branches of foreign companies shall be separately formulated by the State Council.

Article 194 Where a foreign company intends to establish a branch within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, it shall designate its representative or agent within the territory of the People’s Republic of China to take charge of the branch and shall allocate to the branch funds commensurate with the operational activities the branch is engaged in.

Where a minimum amount of operational funds for a branch of a foreign company is required to be prescribed, the State Council shall separately prescribe such amount.

Article 195 The branch of a foreign company shall clearly indicate in its name the nationality and the form of liability of the foreign company.

The branch of a foreign company shall keep at its office a copy of the articles of association of the foreign company.

Article 196 The branch established by a foreign company within the territory of the People’s Republic of China shall not have the status of a Chinese legal person.

A foreign company shall bear civil liability for the operational activities engaged in by its branch within the territory of the People’s Republic of China.

Article 197 In its business activities conducted within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, the branch of a foreign company established upon approval shall observe Chinese laws and shall not impair the public interests of China. The lawful rights and interests of such branch shall be protected by Chinese laws.

Article 198 Where a foreign company intends to dissolve its branch established within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, it shall pay off all the debts of the branch according to law and carry out liquidation in accordance with the provisions of this Law on the procedures of company liquidation. It shall not have the property of the branch transferred out of the territory of the People’s Republic of China prior to the payment of all its debts.

Chapter XII Legal Responsibility

Article 199 Where a company, in violation of the provisions of this Law, obtains its registration by making a false report on its registered capital, submitting falsified materials or concealing important facts by other fraudulent means, the company registration authority shall order it to rectify; in the case of a company that makes a false report on its registered capital, it shall be fined not less than 5 percent but not more than 15 percent of the registered capital falsely reported; in the case of a company that submits falsified materials or conceals important facts by other fraudulent means, it shall be fined not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan; and if the circumstances are serious, the registration of the company shall be cancelled or its business license shall be revoked.

Article 200 Where a promoter or a shareholder of a company makes a false capital contribution by failing to deliver, or failing to deliver on schedule, his capital contribution in currency or non-currency property, the company registration authority shall order him to rectify, and shall impose on him a fine of not less than 5 percent but not more than 15 percent of the amount of such false capital contribution.

Article 201 Where a promoter or a shareholder of a company secretly withdraws his capital contribution after the incorporation of the company, the company registration authority shall order him to rectify, and shall impose on him a fine of not less than 5 percent but not more than 15 percent of the amount of the capital contribution secretly withdrawn.

Article 202 Where a company, in violation of the provisions of this Law, keep other accounting books in addition to the statutory accounting books, the finance department under the people’s government at or above the county level shall order it to rectify, and shall impose on it a fine of not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 500,000 yuan.

Article 203 Where a company makes false records or conceals important facts in such materials as its financial reports submitted to the relevant competent department according to law, the said department shall impose a fine of not less than 30,000 yuan but not more than 300,000 yuan on each of the persons directly in charge of the company and of the other persons directly responsible.

Article 204 Where a company fails to allocate the statutory surplus fund in accordance with the provisions of this Law, the finance department under the people’s government at or above the county level shall order it make up the amount in full, and may impose on the company a fine of not more than 200,000 yuan.

Article 205 Where a company fails to notify its creditors of its decision to merge, divide, reduce its registered capital or go into liquidation or announce such decision to them, as is required by the provisions of this Law, the company registration authority shall order it to rectify, and shall impose on it a fine of not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan.

Where a company, in the process of liquidation, conceals its property, records false information in the balance sheet or the inventory of its property, or distributes its property prior to the payment of all its debts, the company registration authority shall order it to rectify, and shall impose on it a fine of not less than 5 percent but not more than 10 percent of the value of the concealed property or of the amount of the property distributed prior to the payment of all its debts; and the other persons directly in charge and other persons directly responsible shall each be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan.

Article 206 Where, during the period of liquidation, a company conducts operational activities not related to liquidation, the company registration authority shall give it a warning and confiscate its unlawful gains.

Article 207 Where a liquidation team fails to submit its liquidation report to the company registration authority in accordance with the provisions of this Law, or conceals or omits important facts in the liquidation report submitted, the company registration authority shall order it to rectify.

Where a member of the liquidation team takes advantage of his functions and powers to engage in malpractices for personal gain or to seek unlawful income, or takes illegal possession of the property of the company, the company registration authority shall order him to return the property to the company and confiscate his unlawful gains, and may impose on him a fine of not less than the amount of the unlawful gains but not more than five times that amount.

Article 208 Where an institution in charge of assets assessment, capital verification or certificate verification provides false information, the company registration authority shall confiscate its unlawful gains and impose on it a fine of not less than the amount of the unlawful gains but not more than five times that amount, and the department in charge may, in accordance with law, order the institution to suspend business, revoke the qualification certificate of the person directly responsible, or revoke the institution’s business license.

Where an institution in charge of assets assessment, capital verification or certificate verification provides, due to negligence, a report with major omissions, the company registration authority shall order it to rectify; and if the circumstances are relatively serious, a fine of not less than the amount of its gains derived therefrom but not more than five times that amount shall be imposed on it, and the department in charge may, in accordance with law, order the institution to suspend business, revoke the qualification certificate of the person directly responsible, or revoke the institution’s business license.

Where losses are caused to the creditors of a company due to the misrepresentation of the assessment result, capital verification or certificate verification prepared by an institution in charge of assets assessment, capital verification or certificate verification, the institution shall be liable for compensation within the amount of the misrepresented assessment or verification, except where it can prove itself faultless.

Article 209 Where the company registration authority approves an application for registration which does not meet the conditions for registration as stipulated by this Law, or does not approve an application for registration which meets the conditions for registration as stipulated by this Law, the persons directly in charge and the other persons directly responsible shall be given administrative sanctions according to law.

Article 210 Where a department at a higher level peremptorily orders a company registration authority to have registered with it a company whose application for registration does not meet the requirements for registration as stipulated by this Law, or not to have registered with it a company whose application for registration meets the requirements for registration as stipulated by this Law, or covers up an illegal registration, the persons directly in charge and the other persons directly responsible shall be given administrative sanctions according to law.

Article 211 Where an entity that has not registered according to law as a company with limited liability or a company limited by shares assumes the name of such company, or where an entity that has not registered according to law as the branch of a company with limited liability or of a company limited by shares assumes the name of such branch, the company registration authority shall order it to rectify or have it banned and may, in addition, impose on it a fine of not more than 100,000 yuan.

Article 212 Where a company, without justifiable reasons, fails to commence business for more than six months after its incorporation, or after commencement of business it suspends business operation of its own accord for six or more consecutive months, the company registration authority may revoke its business license.

Where a company fails to apply for registration of alterations in accordance with the provisions of this Law when items of company registration are altered, the company registration authority shall order it to have the alterations registered within a specified time limit; and if it fails to comply at the expiration of the time limit, it shall be fined not less than 10,000 yuan but not more than 100,000 yuan.

Article 213 Where a foreign company, in violation of the provisions of this Law, establishes a branch within the territory of the People’s Republic of China, the company registration authority shall order it to rectify or to close the branch, and may, in addition, impose on the foreign company a fine of not less than 50,000 yuan but not more than 200,000 yuan.

Article 214 Where a company takes advantage of the name of the company to engage in serious illegal activities which endanger State security or harm public interests, the business license of the company shall be revoked.

Article 215 Where a company, for violation of the provisions of this Law, should assume civil liability for compensation and pay fines or penalties but its property is insufficient to make such payment, it shall assume the civil liability for compensation first.

Article 216 Where a crime is constituted due to violation of the provisions of this Law, criminal responsibility shall be investigated according to law.

Chapter XIII Supplementary Provisions

Article 217 The following terms used in this Law mean:

(1) Senior managers include the manager, deputy manager and the person in charge of financial affairs of a company, and the secretary of a board of directors of a listed company and the other persons specified in a company’s articles of association.

(2) A proprietary shareholder means a shareholder whose capital contribution accounts for more than 50 percent of the total capital of a company with limited liability or the amount of the shares who holds accounts for more than 50 percent of the total amount of the shares of a company limited by shares; and a shareholder, although the amount of his capital contribution or the proportion of the shares he holds is less than 50 percent, whose voting rights enjoyed on the basis of the amount of capital contribution made or the number of shares held are enough to have a vital bearing on the resolutions of a shareholders assembly or a shareholders general assembly.

(3) An actual controller means a person who is able practically to govern the behavior of a company through investment relations, agreements or other arrangements, although the person is not a shareholder of the company.

(4) Affiliated relations mean the relations between the proprietary shareholder, actual controller, director, supervisor and senior manager of a company with the enterprises which are directly or indirectly under their control, and other relations which may lead to transfer of the company’s interests. However, affiliated relations do not exist among the holding companies of the State although their shares are held by the State in common.

Article 218 This Law shall be applicable to foreign-invested companies with limited liability and such companies limited by shares; and where laws on foreign investments provide otherwise, the provisions there shall be applicable.

Article 219 This Law shall go into effect as of January 1, 2006.